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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 243-249

Risk factors for nuclear and cortical cataracts: A hospital based study

1 Department of Molecular Nutrition, CSIR-Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore, Karnataka, India, Iran
2 Department of Ophthalmology, Sushrutha Eye Hospital, Mysore, Karnataka, India, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Bangera Sheshappa Mamatha
Department of Molecular Nutrition, CSIR.Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore. .. 570. 020, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2008-322X.170356

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Purpose: To evaluate risk factors associated with nuclear and cortical cataracts among a hospital based sample of subjects in Southern India. Methods: In this hospital-based study, 3,549 subjects including 2,090 male and 1,459 female individuals aged 45 years and over were randomly screened for nuclear and cortical cataracts. Lens opacity was graded and classified after pupil dilation using the lens opacities classification system (LOCS) III at the slit lamp. Furthermore, participants were interviewed for lifestyle variables and dietary intake of carotenoids using a structured food frequency questionnaire. Results: Demographic risk factors for cataracts included older age and lower socioeconomic status. Nuclear cataracts were associated with diabetes (OR = 6.34; 95% CI: 2.34-8.92%), tobacco chewing (moderate, OR = 3.04; heavy, OR = 4.62), cigarette smoking (moderate, OR = 1.58; heavy, OR = 1.87) and hypertension (OR = 1.56; 95% CI: 1.25-2.78%). Cortical cataracts were associated with diabetes (OR = 15.03; 95% CI: 7.72-29.2%), tobacco chewing (moderate, OR = 2.16; heavy, OR = 2.32) and cigarette smoking (moderate, OR = 2.20; heavy, OR = 2.97). Higher dietary intake of lutein/zeaxanthin (L/Z) and β-carotene was associated (P < 0.001) with a lower risk of nuclear and cortical cataracts. Conclusion: Higher dietary intake of carotenoids is associated with a lower risk of cataracts. Nuclear and cortical cataracts are associated with various risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, cigarette smoking and tobacco, similar to studies conducted in other Asian and European populations, irrespective of ethnic origin.

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