Predictive value of pupillary response to mydriatic agents for diagnosis of retinopathy of prematurity
Ramak Roohipoor MD 1, Mohammad Riazi-Esfahani MD 2, Nazanin Ebrahimiadib MD 1, Reza Karkhaneh MD 3, Mohammad Zarei MD 3, Sara Besharat MD 3, Fariba Ghassemi MD 3, Mohammad Reza Ostovaneh MD, MPH 4
1 Eye Research Center, Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
2 Eye Research Center, Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences; Department of Ophthalmology, Noor Ophthalmology Research Center, Noor Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran
3 Eye Research Center, Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4 Department of Cardiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
Eye Research Center, Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin Sq., Kargar St., Tehran 1336616351, Iran.
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of screening for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) by assessing the pupillary response to mydriatics.
Methods: This observational case series included 134 eyes of 67 premature infants with birth weight less than 2,000 grams and gestational age less than 33 weeks. A composite eye drop composed of phenylephrine 1%, tetracaine and tropicamide 0.5% was applied 3 times within 5-minute intervals and pupil diameters were measured. The eyes were examined by experienced ROP specialists using an indirect ophthalmoscope. Zone and stage of ROP, presence of plus disease and need for treatment were recorded. The relationship between the pupillary response to mydriatics, and presence and severity of ROP was evaluated. Logistic regression was used for statistical analysis.
Results: According to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, final pupil diameter after mydriatic administration was found the most accurate factor among other factors to recognize ROP zone I from zones II and III (Area under ROC: 0.92 [95%CI: 0.85-0.98]). The best cutoff value for final pupil diameter was 5.6 mm, because it could differentiate involvement of zone I from zones II and III with sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 100%.
Conclusion: Response of the pupil to mydriatic eye drops may be useful as a less invasive method for rough estimation of ROP in high risk babies who need emergent attention; however, it cannot be considered as a screening test due to its low sensitivity.