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REVIEW ARTICLES
Pars planitis: Epidemiology, clinical characteristics, management and visual prognosis
Pinar Cakar Ozdal, Nilufer Berker, Ilknur Tugal-Tutkun
October-December 2015, 10(4):469-480
DOI:10.4103/2008-322X.176897  PMID:27051493
Pars planitis is an idiopathic chronic intermediate uveitis which predominantly affects children and adolescents, and accounts for 5-26.7% of pediatric uveitis. Although an autoimmune process with a genetic predisposition has been suggested, its etiology still remains unknown. The most common presenting symptoms are floaters and blurred vision. Diffuse vitreous cells, haze, snowballs and snowbanks are typical findings of pars planitis. Peripheral retinal vasculitis, optic disc edema and anterior segment inflammation are other well-known findings. Although pars planitis is known to be a benign form of uveitis in most cases, it may become a potentially blinding disease due to complications including cataract, cystoid macular edema, vitreous opacities and optic disc edema. Cystoid macular edema is the most common cause of visual morbidity. Band keratopathy, epiretinal membrane formation, vitreous condensation, neovascularizations, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment, cyclitic membranes, glaucoma and amblyopia may develop as a consequence of the chronic course of the disease. Exclusion of infectious and non-infectious causes which may present with intermediate uveitis is of utmost importance before starting treatment. Treatment of pars planitis has been a controversial issue. There is no consensus specifically for treatment of cases with minimal inflammation and relatively good visual acuity. However, current experience shows that pars planitis may cause severe inflammation and needs an aggressive treatment. A stepladder approach including corticosteroids, immunosupressive agents, anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha and pars plana vitrectomy and/or laser photocoagulation is the most commonly used method for treatment of pars planitis. Adequate control of inflammation and prompt detection of associated complications are crucial in order to improve the overall prognosis of the disease.
  7,930 672 7
Optical coherence tomography angiography in retinal diseases
KV Chalam, Kumar Sambhav
January-March 2016, 11(1):84-92
DOI:10.4103/2008-322X.180709  PMID:27195091
Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a new, non-invasive imaging system that generates volumetric data of retinal and choroidal layers. It has the ability to show both structural and blood flow information. Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography (SSADA) algorithm (a vital component of OCTA software) helps to decrease the signal to noise ratio of flow detection thus enhancing visualization of retinal vasculature using motion contrast. Published studies describe potential efficacy for OCTA in the evaluation of common ophthalmologic diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, age related macular degeneration (AMD), retinal vascular occlusions and sickle cell disease. OCTA provides a detailed view of the retinal vasculature, which allows accurate delineation of microvascular abnormalities in diabetic eyes and vascular occlusions. It helps quantify vascular compromise depending upon the severity of diabetic retinopathy. OCTA can also elucidate the presence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in wet AMD. In this paper, we review the knowledge, available in English language publications regarding OCTA, and compare it with the conventional angiographic standard, fluorescein angiography (FA). Finally, we summarize its potential applications to retinal vascular diseases. Its current limitations include a relatively small field of view, inability to show leakage, and tendency for image artifacts. Further larger studies will define OCTA's utility in clinical settings and establish if the technology may offer a non-invasive option of visualizing the retinal vasculature, enabling us to decrease morbidity through early detection and intervention in retinal diseases.
  5,326 792 63
EDITORIAL
Need for refinement of international retinopathy of prematurity guidelines and classifications
Ramak Roohipoor, John I Loewenstein
October-December 2015, 10(4):355-357
DOI:10.4103/2008-322X.176902  PMID:27051477
  1,296 4,081 1
Choroidal neovascularization induces retinal edema and its treatment addresses this problem
Ramin Tadayoni
October-December 2014, 9(4):405-406
DOI:10.4103/2008-322X.150799  PMID:25709762
  1,615 3,601 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Visual prostheses: The enabling technology to give sight to the blind
Mohammad Hossein Maghami, Amir Masoud Sodagar, Alireza Lashay, Hamid Riazi-Esfahani, Mohammad Riazi-Esfahani
October-December 2014, 9(4):494-505
DOI:10.4103/2008-322X.150830  PMID:25709777
Millions of patients are either slowly losing their vision or are already blind due to retinal degenerative diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) or because of accidents or injuries. Employment of artificial means to treat extreme vision impairment has come closer to reality during the past few decades. Currently, many research groups work towards effective solutions to restore a rudimentary sense of vision to the blind. Aside from the efforts being put on replacing damaged parts of the retina by engineered living tissues or microfabricated photoreceptor arrays, implantable electronic microsystems, referred to as visual prostheses, are also sought as promising solutions to restore vision. From a functional point of view, visual prostheses receive image information from the outside world and deliver them to the natural visual system, enabling the subject to receive a meaningful perception of the image. This paper provides an overview of technical design aspects and clinical test results of visual prostheses, highlights past and recent progress in realizing chronic high-resolution visual implants as well as some technical challenges confronted when trying to enhance the functional quality of such devices.
  4,715 430 9
EDITORIAL
DMEK calling
Alfonso Vasquez Perez, Mehran Zarei-Ghanavati, Christopher Liu
October-December 2016, 11(4):343-344
DOI:10.4103/2008-322X.194067  PMID:27994800
  1,234 3,219 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Chorioretinal coloboma complications: retinal detachment and choroidal neovascular membrane
Rehan M Hussain, Ashkan M Abbey, Ankoor R Shah, Kimberly A Drenser, Michael T Trese, Antonio Capone
January-March 2017, 12(1):3-10
DOI:10.4103/2008-322X.200163  PMID:28299000
Purpose: To report the chorioretinal coloboma, and its association with increased risk of retinal detachment (RD) and choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Methods: This retrospective case series included eyes with chorioretinal coloboma diagnosed between 1995 and 2014 with a focus on RD and CNV as related complications. Cases of CNV were managed with laser photocoagulation or intravitreal injection of bevacizumab. For eyes with CNV, therapeutic success was defined as resolution of the subretinal hemorrhage on fundus examination and resolution of the subretinal and intraretinal fluid on optical coherence tomography (OCT). For eyes with RD, anatomic success following surgical intervention was defined as attachment of the retina at the last follow-up visit. Results: Fifty-one eyes of 31 patients with chorioretinal coloboma were identified for review. Bilateral chorioretinal coloboma was present in 64.5% of subjects. RD developed in 15 eyes (29.4%). Among 15 eyes with RD, 4 eyes (27%) had retinal breaks identified within the coloboma, 5 eyes (33%) had retinal breaks outside the coloboma, 2 eyes (13%) showed retinal breaks both inside and outside the coloboma, and in 4 eyes (27%) the causative retinal break was not localized. The overall rate of anatomic success after RD repair was 85.7%. CNV developed in 7 eyes (13.7%) and was located along the margin of the coloboma in all cases. CNV was bilateral in 2 of the 5 affected individuals (40%). Conclusion: RD and CNV were present in a high percentage of eyes with chorioretinal coloboma in these series. The frequent finding of retinal breaks outside the coloboma bed suggests that vitreoretinal interface abnormalities may play a role in development of RD in these eyes.
  4,055 264 4
PHOTO ESSAYS
Artistic iris: A case of congenital sectoral heterochromia iridis
Mandeep Tomar, Richa Dhiman, Gaurav Sharma, Nishita Yadav
July-September 2018, 13(3):359-360
DOI:10.4103/jovr.jovr_91_17  PMID:30090196
  3,950 123 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Clinical Features and Outcomes of Strabismus Treatment in Third Cranial Nerve Palsy during a 10-Year Period
Abbas Bagheri, Morteza Borhani, Mehdi Tavakoli, Shahram Salehirad
July-September 2014, 9(3):343-349
DOI:10.4103/2008-322X.143375  
Purpose: To evaluate the demographics and management outcomes of strabismus surgery in patients with third cranial nerve palsy. Methods: This retrospective study includes subjects with third cranial nerve palsy. We evaluated age, sex, laterality, severity of involvement, etiology, frequency of clinical findings, and types and results of treatments. Results: 52 patients including 29 male and 23 female subjects with mean age of 21.1±15.5 years were studied between January 1999 and January 2009. Etiologies of third nerve palsy included congenital in 16 (30.8%), trauma in 26 (50%) and other causes in 10 (19.2%) patients. In 24 patients (46.2%), the palsy was complete. The most common type of strabismus was exotropia associated with hypotropia (40%). Medical treatment was used in 25 (48%) and surgical treatment in 46 (88.4%) subjects. One time strabismus surgery was performed in 30 (65.2%), 2 times in 11 (24%) and 3 times in 5 (10.8%) subjects. The most common operation was large horizontal recession and resection in 78.2% of cases. Mean horizontal deviation in primary position was 66±29 prism diopters (PD) before surgery decreasing to 21±19, 13±12 and 6±8 PD after first, second and third surgery, respectively. Corresponding figures for mean vertical deviation were 13±15, 7±12, 4±6 and 1±2 PD, respectively. Abnormal head posture was 10-30° in 11 (21.1%) cases before treatment which completely resolved after surgery. Conclusion: Surgical management of strabismus in patients with third nerve palsy is difficult and challenging, however the majority of patients achieve ideal results with appropriate and stepwise surgical plans.
  3,682 255 -
EDITORIAL
Transscleral Photocoagulation to Treat ROP in Eyes with Media Opacity
Michael T Trese
October-December 2013, 8(4):295-295
Full text not available  [PDF]
  370 3,518 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Transplantation of autologous ex vivo expanded human conjunctival epithelial cells for treatment of pterygia: A prospective open-label single arm multicentric clinical trial
Viraf Sam Vasania, Aarya Hari, Radhika Tandon, Sanjay Shah, Suhas Haldipurkar, Smitesh Shah, Shailendra Sachan, Chandra Viswanathan
October-December 2014, 9(4):407-416
DOI:10.4103/2008-322X.150800  PMID:25709763
Purpose: To establish the efficacy and safety of ex vivo cultured autologous human conjunctival epithelial cell (hCjEC) transplantation for treatment of pterygia. Methods: Twenty-five patients with pterygia were recruited at different centers across the country. Autologous hCjEC grafts were prepared from conjunctival biopsy specimens excised from the healthy eye and cultured ex vivo on human amniotic membrane mounted on inserts using a unique mounting device. The hCjEC grafts were then transported in an in-house designed transport container for transplantation. Post-surgery, the patients were followed up on days 1, 7, 14, 30, 90, and 180 as per the approved study protocol. Clinical outcomes were assessed by slit lamp examination, visual acuity, imprint cytology, fluorescein/rose bengal staining, Schirmer's test, and photographic evaluation three and 6 months post-transplantation. Results: Two patients were lost to follow-up and final analysis included 23 cases. No recurrence of pterygium was observed in 18 (78.3%) patients; all of these eyes showed a smooth conjunctival surface without epithelial defects. Recurrence was observed in 5 (21.7%) patients at 3 months post-treatment. No conjunctival inflammation, secondary infections or other complications were reported. Adequate goblet cells were present in 19 (82.6%) patients at the site of transplantation. Conclusion: We have, for the 1 st time, standardized a protocol for preparing autologous hCjEC grafts that can be safely transported to multiple centers across the country for transplantation. The clinical outcome was satisfactory for treating pterygia.
  2,220 1,368 4
REVIEW ARTICLES
Nutrient supplementation for age-related macular degeneration, cataract, and dry eye
Ronald P Hobbs, Paul S Bernstein
October-December 2014, 9(4):487-493
DOI:10.4103/2008-322X.150829  PMID:25709776
There have been enormous advances in the past decade for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration (AMD); however, these treatments are expensive and require frequent follow-up and injections which place a tremendous burden on both the healthcare system and patients. Consequently, there remains considerable interest in preventing or slowing the progression of AMD requiring treatment. Epidemiological studies have shown that diet is a modifiable AMD risk factor, and nutrient modification is a particularly appealing treatment for AMD due to the perceived universal benefit and relatively low expense. Recently, the age-related eye disease study part two (AREDS2) was concluded and demonstrated further benefit with the addition of lutein and zeaxanthin as a replacement for the β-carotene of the previous generation formulation. The addition of omega-3 essential fatty acids did not show an added benefit. This review aims to highlight some of the evidenced based body of knowledge that has been accumulated from recent studies regarding the use of nutritional supplements and their effect on AMD, cataracts, and dry eyes.
  3,107 449 8
Neuroprotection in glaucoma
Azadeh Doozandeh, Shahin Yazdani
April-June 2016, 11(2):209-220
DOI:10.4103/2008-322X.183923  PMID:27413504
Glaucoma is a degenerative optic neuropathy characterized by retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss and visual field defects. It is known that in some glaucoma patients, death of RGCs continues despite intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction. Neuroprotection in the field of glaucoma is defined as any treatment, independent of IOP reduction, which prevents RGC death. Glutamate antagonists, ginkgo biloba extract, neurotrophic factors, antioxidants, calcium channel blockers, brimonidine, glaucoma medications with blood regulatory effect and nitric oxide synthase inhibitors are among compounds with possible neuroprotective activity in preclinical studies. A few agents (such as brimonidine or memantine) with neuroprotective effects in experimental studies have advanced to clinical trials; however the results of clinical trials for these agents have not been conclusive. Nevertheless, lack of compelling clinical evidence has not prevented the off-label use of some of these compounds in glaucoma practice. Stem cell transplantation has been reported to halt experimental neurodegenerative disease processes in the absence of cell replacement. It has been hypothesized that transplantation of some types of stem cells activates multiple neuroprotective pathways via secretion of various factors. The advantage of this approach is a prolonged and targeted effect. Important concerns in this field include the secretion of unwanted harmful mediators, graft survival issues and tumorigenesis. Neuroprotection in glaucoma, pharmacologically or by stem cell transplantation, is an interesting subject waiting for broad and multidisciplinary collaborative studies to better clarify its role in clinical practice.
  2,843 546 16
Birdshot Retinochoroidopathy
Albert T Vitale
July-September 2014, 9(3):350-361
DOI:10.4103/2008-322X.143376  
Birdshot retinochoroidopathy (BSRC) is an uncommon, but well-characterized chronic, bilateral posterior uveitis, which is uniquely associated with the human leukocyte antigen-A29 phenotype. The disease presents predominantly in middle-aged Caucasian females who complain of blurred vision, floaters, photopsias, paracentral scotomas and nyctalopia. While autoimmune mechanisms are thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of BSRC, its etiology remains unknown. Important questions remain in our understanding of BSRC with respect to its pathogenesis, epidemiology, optimal treatment, and prognosis, including the determinants of remission and relapse, as well as the best strategy for monitoring disease activity, progression and response to therapy with electroretinographic and psychophysical testing, established and emerging imaging modalities, and peripheral cytokines profiles.
  3,200 180 -
EDITORIAL
JOVR is Promoting Closer Academic and Scientific Ties between Europe and Iran
Carl P Herbort
October-December 2011, 6(4):229-230
Full text not available  [PDF]
  345 3,033 -
Normobaric Oxygen Therapy
Reza Dana
October-December 2012, 7(4):273-274
Full text not available  [PDF]
  390 2,978 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Update on normal tension glaucoma
Jyotiranjan Mallick, Lily Devi, Pradeep K Malik, Jogamaya Mallick
April-June 2016, 11(2):204-208
DOI:10.4103/2008-322X.183914  PMID:27413503
Normal tension glaucoma (NTG) is labelled when typical glaucomatous disc changes, visual field defects and open anterior chamber angles are associated with intraocular pressure (IOP) constantly below 21 mmHg. Chronic low vascular perfusion, Raynaud's phenomenon, migraine, nocturnal systemic hypotension and over-treated systemic hypertension are the main causes of normal tension glaucoma. Goldmann applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, slit lamp biomicroscopy, optical coherence tomography and visual field analysis are the main tools of investigation for the diagnosis of NTG. Management follows the same principles of treatment for other chronic glaucomas: To reduce IOP by a substantial amount, sufficient to prevent disabling visual loss. Treatment is generally aimed to lower IOP by 30% from pre-existing levels to 12-14 mmHg. Betaxolol, brimonidine, prostaglandin analogues, trabeculectomy (in refractory cases), systemic calcium channel blockers (such as nifedipine) and 24-hour monitoring of blood pressure are considered in the management of NTG. The present review summarises risk factors, causes, pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of NTG.
  2,802 555 12
Diabetes and Retinal Vascular Dysfunction
Eui Seok Shin, Christine M Sorenson, Nader Sheibani
July-September 2014, 9(3):362-373
DOI:10.4103/2008-322X.143378  
Diabetes predominantly affects the microvascular circulation of the retina resulting in a range of structural changes unique to this tissue. These changes ultimately lead to altered permeability, hyperproliferation of endothelial cells and edema, and abnormal vascularization of the retina with resulting loss of vision. Enhanced production of inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress are primary insults with significant contribution to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR). We have determined the identity of the retinal vascular cells affected by hyperglycemia, and have delineated the cell autonomous impact of high glucose on function of these cells. We discuss some of the high glucose specific changes in retinal vascular cells and their contribution to retinal vascular dysfunction. This knowledge provides novel insight into the molecular and cellular defects contributing to the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy, and will aid in the development of innovative, as well as target specific therapeutic approaches for prevention and treatment of DR.
  2,682 345 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Measurement of central corneal thickness using ultrasound pachymetry and Orbscan II in normal eyes
Mohammad Mehdi Sadoughi, Bahram Einollahi, Neda Einollahi, Javad Rezaei, Danial Roshandel, Sepehr Feizi
January-March 2015, 10(1):4-9
DOI:10.4103/2008-322X.156084  PMID:26005545
Purpose: To compare ultrasound pachymetry and Orbscan II for measurement of central corneal thickness (CCT) in normal eyes. Methods: The current study was performed at Labbafinejad Medical Center (LMC), Tehran, Iran. Three hundred eyes from 150 healthy individuals referred for keratorefractive surgery were assessed first by Orbscan II and then by ultrasound pachymetry, and CCT values were recorded and compared. Results: Overall, Orbscan II overestimated CCT as compared to ultrasound pachymetry by about 2.4% (mean values 547.6 ± 34.7 versus 534.8 ± 34.7, respectively, P < 0.001). The difference was more significant when CCT was less than 500 microns (mean values 493.2 ± 16.9 versus 479.9 ± 15.6, mean overestimation: 2.6%, P < 0.001). There was good linear correlation between the two methods (Pearson's correlation r = 0.968, P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Orbscan II has good correlation with ultrasound pachymetry for measurement of CCT in normal eyes; however Orbscan II should not be used to evaluate corneal thickness before keratorefractive surgeries, as it tends to overestimate corneal thickness and may result in undesirable, low residual stromal thickness.
  2,424 299 10
Histopathology of conjunctivochalasis compared to normal conjunctiva
Hesam Hashemian, Mirgholamreza Mahbod, Fahimeh A Amoli, Mohammad Y Kiarudi, Mahmoud Jabbarvand, Ahmad Kheirkhah
October-December 2016, 11(4):345-349
DOI:10.4103/2008-322X.194068  PMID:27994801
Purpose: To evaluate the histopathologic changes in the conjunctiva of patients with conjunctivochalasis (CCh) compared to age-matched controls. Methods: This cross-sectional, controlled study included 27 eyes of 27 patients with CCh and 16 eyes of 16 age-matched controls. A biopsy of the bulbar conjunctiva was performed along the temporal lower lid margin before cataract surgery in both groups. Histopathologic evaluation of the specimens was done with light microscopy using staining with hematoxylin/eosin, periodic acid Schiff, and van Gieson elastic stain. Various histopathologic features of the conjunctival epithelium and stroma were compared between the two groups. Results: The mean age of patients was 62.4 ± 6.9 years in the CCh group and 65.1 ± 6.3 years in the control group (P = 0.54). No significant differences were noted between the two groups in terms of conjunctival epithelial changes including papillomatosis, epithelial clefts, epithelial goblet cells, or infiltration of inflammatory cells. Mean thickness of the conjunctival stroma was 0.21 ± 0.08 mm in the CCh group and 0.26 ± 0.21 mm in the control group (P = 0.10). For the conjunctival stroma, there were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of elastosis, fibrosis, lymphangiectasia, or infiltration of inflammatory cells. Conclusion: No noticeable differences were found in the histopathologic features by light microscopy between eyes with CCh and those of age-matched controls. Therefore, the primary pathology of CCh may not be within the conjunctiva itself. Instead, loose attachment of the conjunctiva to the underlying tissue may be the reason for the redundant folds in the bulbar conjunctiva.
  1,185 1,486 1
Prevalence of amblyopia and refractive errors among primary school children
Zhale Rajavi, Hamideh Sabbaghi, Ahmad Shojaei Baghini, Mehdi Yaseri, Hamidreza Moein, Shadi Akbarian, Narges Behradfar, Simin Hosseini, Hossein Mohammad Rabei, Kourosh Sheibani
October-December 2015, 10(4):408-416
DOI:10.4103/2008-322X.176909  PMID:27051485
Purpose: To determine the prevalence of amblyopia and refractive errors among 7 to 12-year-old primary school children in Tehran, Iran. Methods: This population-based cross-sectional study included 2,410 randomly selected students. Visual acuity was tested using an E-chart on Yang vision tester. Refractive errors were measured by photorefractometry and cycloautorefraction. Strabismus was checked using cover test. Direct ophthalmoscopy was used to assess the anterior segment, lens opacities, red reflex and fundus. Functional amblyopia was defined as best corrected visual acuity ≤20/40 in one or both eyes with no anatomical problems. Results: Amblyopia was present in 2.3% (95% CI: 1.8% to 2.9%) of participants with no difference between the genders. Amblyopic subjects were significantly younger than non-amblyopic children (P=0.004). Overall, 15.9% of hyperopic and 5.9% of myopic cases had amblyopia. The prevalence of hyperopia ≥+2.00D, myopia ≤-0.50D, astigmatism ≥0.75D, and anisometropia (≥1.00D) was 3.5%, 4.9%, 22.6%, and 3.9%, respectively. With increasing age, the prevalence of myopia increased (P<0.001), that of hyperopia decreased (P=0.007), but astigmatism showed no change. Strabismus was found in 2.3% of cases. Strabismus (OR=17.9) and refractive errors, especially anisometropia (OR=12.87) and hyperopia (OR=11.87), were important amblyogenic risk factors. Conclusion: The high prevalence of amblyopia in our subjects in comparison to developed countries reveals the necessity of timely and sensitive screening methods. Due to the high prevalence of amblyopia among children with refractive errors, particularly high hyperopia and anisometropia, provision of glasses should be specifically attended by parents and supported by the Ministry of Health and insurance organizations.
  2,216 370 13
Corneal changes after collagen crosslinking for keratoconus using dual scheimpflug imaging
Mohammad Mehdi Sadoughi, Sepehr Feizi, Siamak Delfazayebaher, Alireza Baradaran-Rafii, Bahram Einollahi, Camelia Shahabi
October-December 2015, 10(4):358-363
DOI:10.4103/2008-322X.176894  PMID:27051478
Purpose: To evaluate corneal changes after collagen crosslinking (CXL) therapy for keratoconus (KCN) using the Galilei dual Scheimpflug analyzer. Methods: This prospective, nonrandomized clinical study included 35 eyes of 32 keratoconus patients who had undergone CXL. The eyes were saturated with riboflavin solution and were subjected for 30 minutes to ultraviolet-A (UV-A) light with irradiance of 3 mW/cm2. Effectiveness of the treatment was assessed by measuring uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), manifest cylinder/sphere, keratometry, pachymetry, posterior and anterior elevations by the Galilei dual Scheimpflug analyzer. Prior to treatment and 8 months after therapy, Scheimpflug analysis was performed using the Galilei system. The four sets of data including keratometry values, pachymetry, elevation parameters and surface indices were statistically analyzed and compared. Results: Mean patient age was 22.3 ± 3.8 years and mean postoperative follow-up was 8.1 ± 3.2 months. There was a significant increase in UCVA (0.54 ± 0.35 Log MAR preoperatively to 0.49 ± 0.34 LogMAR postoperatively, P = 0.01) and BCVA (0.21 ± 0.19 Log MAR preoperatively to 0.16 ± 0.17 LogMAR postoperatively, P = 0.01). Mean cycloplegic spherical equivalent refractive error was −4.13 ± 2.65 Diopter (D) preoperatively and − 4.67 ± 2.96 D postoperatively (P < 0.001). During the follow-up period, no significant difference was observed in pachymetric and elevation data postoperatively. Conclusion: Corneal stabilization could be achieved by collagen crosslinking therapy for keratoconus in terms of corneal thickness, keratometry values, elevation parameters and surface indices.
  1,127 1,422 2
Topical cyclosporine a for treatment of dry eye due to chronic mustard gas injury
Khosrow Jadidi, Yunes Panahi, Ali Ebrahimi, Mostafa Mafi, Farhad Nejat, Amirhossein Sahebkar
October-December 2014, 9(4):417-422
DOI:10.4103/2008-322X.150803  PMID:25709764
Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of topical cyclosporine A (tCsA) for treatment of dry eye disease in patients suffering from chronic ocular complications of mustard gas (MG) injury. Methods: This interventional case series included patients with MG injury suffering from severe dry eye despite receiving artificial tears and punctal plugs. Patients were administered tCsA 0.05% twice daily for 3 months. Severity of the condition was evaluated by measuring tear osmolarity, ocular surface disease index (OSDI), tear break-up time (TBUT), and Schirmer's test at baseline and at the end of study. Results: A total of 34 patients with chronic MG injury and mean age of 47.1 ± 6.5 years were studied. Compared to baseline values, tear osmolarity (301.7 ± 11.5 vs. 286.3 ± 7.9 mOsmol/L, P < 0.001) and OSDI (47.5 ± 7.2 vs. 42.7 ± 7.1, P < 0.001) were significantly improved. Likewise, Schirmer's test (4.6 ± 1.3 vs. 5 ± 1.3 mm, P < 0.001) and TBUT (1.9 ± 1.4 vs. 2.7 ± 1.5 s, P < 0.001) also significantly recovered at the end of the study. Conclusion: TCsA 0.05% reduces tear osmolarity and improves dry eye symptoms and can serve as an efficacious treatment for ocular complications in patients with chronic MG injury.
  2,184 322 4
REVIEW ARTICLES
Optical coherence tomography angiography of the optic disc; an overview
Handan Akil, Khalil Ghasemi Falavarjani, Srinivas R Sadda, Alfredo A Sadun
January-March 2017, 12(1):98-105
DOI:10.4103/2008-322X.200162  PMID:28299012
Different diseases of the optic disc may be caused by or lead to abnormal vasculature at the optic nerve head. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a novel technology that provides high resolution mapping of the retinal and optic disc vessels. Recent studies have shown the ability of OCTA to visualize vascular abnormalities in different optic neuropathies. In addition, quantified OCTA measurements were found promising for differentiating optic neuropathies from healthy eyes.
  2,114 375 16
PERSPECTIVE
Optogenetics for Retinal Disorders
Bradley S Henriksen, Robert E Marc, Paul S Bernstein
July-September 2014, 9(3):374-382
DOI:10.4103/2008-322X.143379  
Optogenetics is the use of genetic methods combined with optical technology to achieve gain or loss of function within neuronal circuits. The field of optogenetics has been rapidly expanding in efforts to restore visual function to blinding diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Most work in the field includes a group of light-sensitive retinaldehyde-binding proteins known as opsins. Opsins couple photon absorption to molecular signaling chains that control cellular ion currents. Targeting of opsin genes to surviving retinal cells is fundamental to the success of optogenetic therapy. Viral delivery, primarily adeno-associated virus, using intravitreal injection for inner retinal cells and subretinal injection for outer retinal cells, has proven successful in many models. Challenges in bioengineering remain for optogenetics including relative insensitivity of opsins to physiologic light levels of stimulation and difficulty with viral delivery in primate models. However, targeting optogenetic therapy may present an even greater challenge. Neural and glial remodeling seen in advanced stages of RP result in reorganization of remaining neural retina, and optogenetic therapy may not yield functional results. Remodeling also poses a challenge to the selection of cellular targets, with bipolar, amacrine and ganglion cells all playing distinct physiologic roles, and affected by remodeling differently. Although optogenetics has drawn closer to clinical utility, advances in opsin engineering, therapeutic targeting and ultimately in molecular inhibition of remodeling will play critical roles in the continued clinical advancement of optogenetic therapy.
  2,275 203 -